Considering factors such as conversion efficiency of solar panels, technical level, maturity of production process, market share, etc., for large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power plants, the types of solar panels currently commonly used can be roughly divided into crystalline silicon solar panels and amorphous silicon solar panels. Crystalline silicon solar panels are further divided into monocrystalline silicon solar panels and polycrystalline silicon solar panels. Amorphous silicon solar panels are mainly thin-film solar panels. The following is a brief analysis of the conversion efficiency of various photovoltaic solar panels:
1. Monocrystalline silicon solar panels
Monocrystalline solar panels are the most common high-efficiency solar panels on the market today. The production process and technological breakthroughs of the single crystal industry chain determine that it has a more perfect crystal lattice, can better absorb light, and has a higher conversion efficiency. For monocrystalline solar panels, the efficiency of PERC high-efficiency monocrystalline solar cells has exceeded 23%, setting a world record. The conversion efficiency of ordinary monocrystalline solar cells is also above 19%, which is the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency among all types of solar cells.
With the continuous maturity of technology, the price of monocrystalline solar panels is almost the same as that of polycrystalline. Because monocrystalline silicon is generally encapsulated with tempered glass and waterproof resin, it is durable and its service life can generally reach 20 years, and the maximum can reach 30 years.
2. Polycrystalline silicon solar panels
Compared with monocrystalline solar cells, the silicon wafer of polycrystalline solar cells is a combination of multiple tiny single crystals, with a large number of grain boundaries in the middle, including many defects. It is actually a minority carrier recombination center, thus reducing the polycrystalline silicon. At present, the conversion efficiency of polycrystalline solar cells is about 18%-20%.
3. Thin film solar panels
After several years of rapid development, the laboratory efficiency of single-junction amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells can reach about 12.7%, and the laboratory efficiency of microcrystalline silicon multi-junction solar cells can reach 13.4%. The laboratory photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells can reach 16%, and the average efficiency of commercial solar cells is 8%-10%. The conversion efficiency of copper indium gallium selenide can reach 14%.
However, compared with crystalline silicon solar panels, the main problem of thin-film solar panels is the low photoelectric conversion efficiency, and the area of thin-film solar panels required to convert the same amount of electric energy is huge. In addition, thin-film solar panels also have the disadvantage of poor stability, and their energy conversion efficiency changes with the prolongation of irradiation time. These shortcomings are the biggest obstacles to the wide application of thin-film solar panels.
From the analysis of the conversion efficiency of the above three types of photovoltaic solar panels, it is not difficult to see that the conversion efficiency of crystalline silicon solar panels is significantly higher and more stable than that of thin-film solar panels. Monocrystalline silicon solar panels have significantly higher conversion efficiency and are more stable than polycrystalline silicon solar panels. For the selection of photovoltaic power plant components, it should be combined with the specific conditions of the project, and the corresponding technical and economic comparison analysis should be carried out to finally determine the best solar panel selection suitable for the photovoltaic power plant.
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