China plans to accomplish a 200-tonne megawatt-level space-based solar power station by 2035, according to the China Academy of Space Technology.
The space-based solar power station would capture the sun’s energy that never makes it to the planet, said Wang Li, a CAST research fellow with the program, when attending the sixth China-Russia Engineering Forum held last week in Xiamen, southeast China’s Fujian Province.
The energy is converted to microwaves or lasers and then beamed wirelessly back to the Earth’s surface for human consumption, Wang said.
“We hope to strengthen international cooperation and make scientific and technological breakthroughs so that humankind can achieve the dream of limitless clean energy at an early date,” Wang said.
Compared with traditional fossil energy, which has been increasingly exhausted and is responsible for severe environmental issues, space-based solar power is more efficient and sustainable, providing a reliable power supply solution for satellites and disaster-hit areas or isolated areas on the Earth, Wang said.
The concept of collecting solar power in space was popularized by science fiction author Isaac Asimov in 1941. In 1968, Peter Glaser, an American aerospace engineer, wrote a formal proposal for a solar-based system in space.
China has proposed various sunlight collecting solutions and made a number of major breakthroughs in wireless energy transmission since the country listed space-based solar power as a key research program in 2008.
However, ambition has long been a challenge for current technology because it involves the launch and installation of numerous solar panel modules and the efficient wireless transmission of mega energy.
With an investment of 200 million yuan ($28.4 million), China is building a testing base in Bishan, southwest China’s Chongqing Municipality, for the research of high-power wireless energy transmission and its impact on the environment.
Researches in this field will spur the country’s space science and innovation in emerging industries like commercial space transportations, Wang said.
Source from ChinaDaily
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AIoT (Artificial Intelligence Internet of Things) = AI (Artificial Intelligence) + IoT (Internet of Things). AIoT integrates AI technology and IoT technology. Through the Internet of Things, massive amounts of data are generated and collected in the cloud and at the edge, and then big data analysis and higher forms of artificial intelligence are used to realize dataization and intelligentization of everything. The Internet of Things technology and artificial intelligence are pursuing an intelligent ecosystem. In addition to the need for continuous innovation in technology, the implementation and application of technology are the core issues in the field of Internet of Things and artificial intelligence that need to be broken at this stage.
Concept of AIoT
From a broad definition, AIoT is the integration of artificial intelligence technology and the Internet of Things in practical applications. It is not a new technology, but a new form of IoT application, which distinguishes it from traditional IoT applications. If the Internet of Things is to interconnect all ordinary objects that can perform independent functions and connect everything with the network, then AIoT will give it more intelligent features based on this, so that everything in the true sense can be interconnected.
On October 16, 2017, Legrand and Nanjing IoT jointly held the Internet of Things and Smart Home Global Summit Forum in Nanjing with the theme “AIoT, Meet a New Future”. The event attracted experts from the fields of artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, the Internet, and home appliances to discuss in depth the application and impact of related technologies such as AIoT. For the first time, the industry pushed the concept of AIoT to the masses.
On November 28, 2017, at the “Smart Future of All Things · AIoT Future Summit” co-sponsored by Guangji Capital, 36 氪, and Tsinglian, experts and industry guests believed that with the continuous expansion of the Internet of Things application scenarios, the industry The space is gradually expanding, and AI enters the second half of development. When combined with IoT, it will open an important channel for artificial intelligence to really land.
On the same day, at the first Xiaomi IoT Developers Conference, Xiaomi announced that it had reached an in-depth cooperation with Baidu and would cooperate in the field of Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI). The era of the Internet of Everything and artificial intelligence has arrived, and artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things will form a perfect complementarity and combination. Artificial intelligence will become a new breakthrough point for the further sustainable development of the Internet of Things. It will allow the Internet of Things to enter a new era. .
Application Range of AIoT
Whether it is AI or the Internet of Things, one key is indispensable: data.
Data is the foundation of Internet of Everything and human-computer interaction. The involvement of AI gives the IoT a “brain”. Similarly, thanks to the development of current storage technology, data has a basic “logistical guarantee”. The rapid expansion of cloud services has given data a material basis for value.
After the “integration” of AI and IoT, “artificial intelligence” has gradually developed to “application intelligence”. Deep learning requires the sensor collection of the Internet of Things, and the system of the Internet of Things also needs artificial intelligence to correctly identify, find anomalies, and predict the future. From this, it can be seen that artificial intelligence combined with the Internet of Things (AIoT) is the next major development. And this development affects all walks of life, and even subverts the industry. In other words, AIoT services will appear in large numbers next to us.
In the list of the first batch of national new generation artificial intelligence open innovation platforms, relying on Baidu ’s “autonomous driving” national new generation artificial intelligence open innovation platform, relying on Alibaba Cloud ’s “urban brain” national new generation artificial intelligence open innovation platform, relying on Tencent The new generation of artificial intelligence open innovation platform of “Medical Imaging” national construction, and the new generation of artificial intelligence open innovation platform of “Smart Voice” national construction relying on HKUST.
Editor: Carrie Wong / WSL Solar
WSL Solar has been a quality and professional manufacturer of custom solar panels and solar solution provider in China since 2006.
Epoxy Solar Panel is a kind of solar panel, but the encapsulation method is different. The solar cell is cut into small pieces by using a laser cutter to make the required voltage and current, and then encapsulated. Due to the small size, the encapsulation method such as glass laminated or PET laminated solar panel is generally not used, but the solar cell sheet is covered with epoxy resin and bonded with the PCB circuit board.
The size of the solar panel can be customized according to the size required by the customer. The working voltage and working current can be customized. Generally, the epoxy solar panel is used to charge the battery of solar charger, solar light, toy and other small solar application electronic products. The working current is measured in the simulated standard light intensity. The standard test conditions are 1000 W/M 2, 25 ° C, and AM 1.5 conditions. The voltage and current emitted will change with the light intensity of the day. In sunny days, the power generated by the solar panel can be calculated in 4 hours.
Epoxy solar panel is an accessory for solar products. It can charge battery or directly connect load. It can be used in solar lawn light, solar floor lamp, solar garden lamp, solar charger, solar street sign, solar road stud, solar traffic sign, solar flashlights, solar toys and other small electrical products. Medium or large-size solar panels are generally encapsulated in a laminate way. Only solar panels with too small size and a power of only a few watts will be made into epoxy solar panels. Because laminated solar panels have a longer life than epoxy solar panel.
and Disadvantages of Epoxy Solar Panel
The epoxy solar panel has the
characteristics of high production speed, pressure and corrosion resistance,
beautiful appearance and low cost.
However, its disadvantage is that
the lifespan of the epoxy solar panel is shorter than that of laminated solar
panels, and usually the lifespan is only about one year. If it is often exposed
to the outdoors, the surface of the epoxy solar panel will become whitish and
yellow, which affects the appearance. Therefore, if you want a long-life solar
panel, you better choose glass laminated solar panels, ETFE or PET laminated
Editor: Carrie Wong / WSL Solar
WSL Solar has been a quality and professional manufacturer of custom solar panels and solar solution provider in China since 2006.
A solar panel is a device that converts solar energy into electrical energy. Since solar panels can be customized flexibly, small custom solar panels have been applied to many off-grid solar applications, such as solar chargers, solar attic fans, and solar LED lights etc.
the solar panels we see are a complete piece of panel, but do you know what the
internal structure of the solar panels is?
we mainly introduce the crystal silicon solar panels that are more common on
the market as an example.
structure of crystalline silicon solar panels is usually: tempered glass / EVA
/ solar cell / EVA / backsheet.
Solar Panel Construction
(1) Tempered glass: Its function is to protect the main body of power generation (such as solar cells). The choice of light transmission is required:
1. The light transmittance must be high (generally 91% or more); 2. Ultra-white tempering treatment.
(2) EVA: Used to
bond fixed tempered glass and solar cell. The quality of transparent EVA
material directly affects the life of solar panels. EVA exposed to air is prone
to aging and yellowing, thus affecting the light transmission of solar panels,
so then, affecting the power generation quality of the solar panels. In
addition to the quality of the EVA itself, the influence of the lamination
process of the custom solar
panel manufacturers is also very large. For example, if the EVA
adhesiveness is not up to standard, the bonding strength of EVA and tempered
glass and backing plate is insufficient, which will cause EVA early aging, thus
affects solar panel’s life.
(3) Solar Cell: Solar
cells are the core components of solar panels. The main function of solar cell
is power generation.
(4) Back sheet: Its function is sealed,
insulated and waterproof. Generally, materials such as TPT and TPE must be
resistant to aging. Most solar panel manufacturers are guaranteed for 25 years.
Tempered glass and aluminum alloys are generally no problem. The key is whether
the back sheet and silica gel can meet the requirements.
solar cell is soldered, the next step is to laminate, according to the
following sequence, tempered glass / EVA / solar cell / EVA / back plate,
stacked, and then sent to the laminator for vacuuming, and high temperature
lamination. EVA is solid at room temperature, but when EVA is exposed to high
temperatures, it becomes liquid. Therefore, in the laminator, after the EVA is
melted into a liquid state, the solar cell sheet and the tempered glass and the
back sheet are glued together.
Just after laminating from the laminator, usually on the four sides of the solar panel, there is some excess EVA overflow, which requires a knife to cut and burr. After processing, a complete solar panel is produced.
Recently, Swedish multinational home furnish IKEA was interviewed by interviewers about the PV business model of flat furniture retailers, and said that it will be the first trial operation of “Solstrale” Solar panels in the Swedish market this summer, by 2025. Plans to provide solar panels in his worldwide stores.
According to IKEA, this idea is borrowed from the experience of selling solar panels in Germany. “With the rapid development of the solar industry in recent years, especially the more simplified regulations and better returns, it is a very good choice to invest in solar panels in Sweden today.” Jonas Carlehed, Swedish Sustainable Development Manager, IKEA Group Say.
In the past two years, the Swedish government has also made many efforts in the solar industry, such as improving the regulation of solar energy and increasing the budget for rooftop PV.
IKEA said the company is negotiating with potential suppliers and partners on the quotation and sales suppliers of Swedish Solstrale photovoltaic panels. The right partners will help IKEA avoid problems similar to those encountered in Germany.
According to IKEA, the company plans to expand Solstrale’s sales to all markets worldwide by 2025. “We want to help our customers produce their own renewable energy at home, which is good for the climate, the environment, and the wallet.”
In fact, IKEA furniture’s innovative move in the field of solar energy has led the wave of rooftop PV retail. As early as the first two years, IKEA has proposed a plan to sell solar roof systems in its official website and physical stores, and to land in several countries such as Europe. At present, due to certain factors such as ideological concepts and living environment, this practice has not yet been carried out in other countries outside Europe.
This time, IKEA will split the solar panels in the rooftop photovoltaic system, which will attract more customers to turn their attention to solar furniture. On the other hand, it will leave customers with more DIY space on their roof. But selling only the battery board also means that the electrical requirements of the customer are more demanding, assembly and installation is a problem, and testing and maintenance will become another big problem in the later period. Has IKEA conducted market research before this? How is the customer’s acceptance? Do not ask whether it is profitable (a company with a strong sense of clean energy, often very capricious), can this model work normally?
Building a platform for retail components is not a pioneering move in China. In 2017, Yingli opened the first “photovoltaic supermarket”, specializing in the necessary components of photovoltaic modules, inverters, brackets and other photovoltaic systems, and the four areas of knowledge, product display, business negotiation and customer experience in the supermarket. Also made a preliminary preparation for retail. However, most of the supermarket’s customers are local dealers. They often intuitively feel the difference between the components and carry out the “shopping around” and choose the preferred purchase. Yingli “photovoltaic supermarket” industry has heard about it, but it is basically insulated from the outside world. Compared with the platform for the public, it is relatively occluded.
IKEA is different. It is an internationally renowned Fortune 500 company, referring to an industry giant that modern comfort furniture can’t get around. In any case, IKEA does photovoltaic, which is not only the trend of future development, but also the leader of the new home era. IKEA has set up a template for home decoration around the world. After three or five years of market education, people will install photovoltaic panels on the roof. Not only is it no longer strange, but it will also set off a wave of competing installation.
In the first quarter of 2019, solar cells, solar panels, and photovoltaic wafer export data were released. What is the export market like? Let’s take a look!
In the first quarter of 2019, China’s solar cell exports totaled US$400 million, an increase of 35.71% year-on-year; installed capacity was 2,777 MW, a year-on-year increase of 100.5%. Mainly exported to South Korea, India, Vietnam, Turkey and Germany. Among them, Aixu, Jingao, Tongwei, Suntech, Tianhe, and Shunfeng Optoelectronics have accounted for about 50% of the global market.
In the first quarter of 2019, China’s solar panel exports totaled US$4.39 billion, up 31.89% year-on-year; installed capacity was 16.78GWMW, up 77.63% year-on-year. Mainly in Vietnam, the Netherlands, India, Japan, Australia as the main market.
Photovoltaic silicon wafer
In the first quarter of 2019, the export value of photovoltaic wafers in China decreased significantly. The total export value of the world was 582 million US dollars, down 37.06% year-on-year; the installed capacity was 1.346 billion pieces, down 11.19% year-on-year. Most are sold to Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand and India.
AM1.5 refers to the spectrum. Since solar panels are generally different in efficiency under different light intensity or spectral conditions, AM0 spectrum (1.367 KW/m2) is generally used for space solar panels, and AM1.5 spectrum is generally used for ground applications. (ie, the ground at noon, clear sunlight, 1.000 KW/m2) as a standard source for testing the efficiency of solar panels. The solar panel’s spectral efficiency in AM0 is generally 2 to 4 percentage points lower than the AM1.5 spectral efficiency. For example, a Si solar cell with an AMO efficiency of 16% has an AM1.5 efficiency of about 19%.
Solar Panel Power Test Test conditions: AM1.5, 1000W/m2, 25°C Output power Tolerance: ±5% Standard test conditions: AM1.5, 1000W/m2, 25°C interpretation
AM1.5, 1000W/m2, 25°C is the test standard for IEC61646–Design and finalization of thin film photovoltaic modules for the ground (GB/T18911-2002). It is also the general test standard for GB/T11011-1989–Amorphous silicon solar cell electrical performance test.
AM means air-mass, defined as: path-length through the atmosphere relative to vertical thickness of the atmosphere, which is the vertical distance of the actual distance of light passing through the atmosphere from the upper atmosphere. AM1.5 is the actual distance of light passing through the atmosphere to 1.5 times the vertical thickness of the atmosphere.
1000W/m2 is the irradiance of the light of the standard test solar cell.
25 ° C is working at a temperature of 25 ° C. The efficiency of the solar cell will decrease with the increase of temperature. When it is used, the temperature will rise, and then the temperature coefficient will give the voltage and current and output power of his work.
Test Methods If you don’t have a special instrument, you can buy one or several 500W metal halide lamps. Other heat sources are also available. When the area of the solar panel is large, it can be arranged according to the illumination range of the lamp, and then equipped with a voltage regulator, the distance is about 15-20CM, and the data is measured by the light meter: 40,000 LUX, which is the currently recognized international standard test methods. Then put the solar panels to test.